Mathematical biology aims at the mathematical representation, treatment and modeling of biological processes, using a variety of applied mathematical techniques and tools. It has both theoretical and practical applications in biological, biomedical and biotechnology research. By describing the systems in a quantitative manner, their behavior can be better simulated, and hence properties can be predicted that might not be evident to the experimenter.

Such mathematical areas are calculus, probability theory, statistics, linear algebra, graph theory, combinatory, algebraic geometry, dynamical systems; differential equations are now being applied in biology.

Mathematical models are important tools in basic scientific research in many areas of biology, including physiology, ecology, evolution, toxicology, immunology, natural resource management, and conservation biology. These models are equations or formulas that can predict or describe natural occurrences, such as organism behavior patterns or population changes over time. The result obtained from analysis and simulation of system models are used to test and extend biological theory, and to suggest new hypotheses or experiments. Models are also widely used to synthesize available information and provide quantitative answers to practical questions.

Another field of mathematical biology is statistics which is known as biostatistics. Biostatistics deals with the application of statistics to a wide range of topics in biology. It is one of the disciplines of biological sciences concerned with the application of mathematical-statistical theory, principles, and practices to the observation, measurement, and analysis of biological data and phenomena. Biostatistics often involves the design of experiments in medicine, online pharmacy, agriculture, and fishery. It also involves collecting, summarizing, and analyzing the data received from those experiments as well as the decided results.