IILM College of Engineering and Technology

Make the best of your college days

College is the most cherished time of everyone’s life. The time where you will learn, understand, explore, enjoy, and make memories. In your college days, you will be in the learning phase of your life where you will decide about your career and future. How to explore opportunities and work on all the possibilities to achieve your goals will be your aim as a student. Student life is full of changes and challenges. As a student, you need to choose what is right for you, how to manage your time and how to prepare yourself to achieve your goal. Starting from choosing the right college for you until choosing the right career is a long journey that needs to be traveled with full dedication and determination.

Talking about college brings jitters if you are a school going, student. Thinking about college life for such school kids will be both exciting and stressful. They should keep in mind that this time of college days is something which they need to work on with their full efforts, intellect, hard work but at the same time, they will enjoy the time, will explore opportunities in all the possible fields and will develop into a great person. A student will learn a lot in his or her college days but it is not only about the curriculum, studies, and placements.

Besides classroom teaching and laboratory classes, learning in college includes attending conferences, seminars, webinars, workshops, guest lectures, educational trips, and participating in different competitions at college and inter-college levels. Building your personality and developing good communication skills with the right attitude and positivity should be the aim of every student from the first day of their college life.

Success needs dedication and you need to be disciplined in your life and at your college following the rules and regulations, attending regular classes, listening to your professors, completing your assignments & exams and keep putting best of your efforts. Confidence and perseverance will make you focused on your goal in life. Besides exploring the different learning mediums, the college provides opportunities where you can showcase your talent in different cocurricular and extracurricular activities including events conducted in fields like science, technology, innovation, and events in the field of cultural, literary, sports, etc.

College life will train you on how to handle challenges and deal with the most unpredictable situations. It will make you experience both happiness and hardships. You will learn to work as a team and will develop skills for life. And yes college life will bring you to meet people of different natures and attitudes and also you will have mentors and friends who will add something to your personality. Choosing the right and staying positive should be your life long mantra. Thus, a student’s aim at college should be to collect knowledge, enjoy every moment, and explore all the possible opportunities that will make you reach your goals, decide your career and make you successful in life.

Dr. Roma Chandra
Deptt. Of Biotechnology
IILM CET Gr.Noida

Genome – the Secret Coder

Life is incomplete without genomes and they are probably the secret coders carrying information of every individual. Plants and animals all are dependent on these genomes. From genes and genomes to DNA and proteins everything is carrying information about life. Predicting genomes is not an easy task and just requires various methods that incorporate different elements. Replication to transcription and then to translation, this is what the story of central dogma talks about producing proteins for life. Coding genomes and encoding proteins is a complex process to build the metabolic activity of cells and any multicellular organism. From the human genome project to next-generation sequencing, the genomes now can be studied in an annotated manner.

DNA sequencing started to produce a chain of nucleotides using Sanger & Maxam Gilbert methods. Eventually, next-generation sequencing made sequencing easy and effective, contributing to the human genome. Genome study extended from structure to functional analysis with a study about their roles as coding and noncoding. Functional roles like gene expression, DNA replication, and chromosome inheritance discusses its importance.

Genomes carry information at an evolutionary scale where we know that our genome consists of information carried from our ancestors and carried forward to our offspring. Thus, genomes are responsible for how our body responds towards different metabolic processes as well as diseases and treatments. Genomes help us to understand and deal with the human responsibility towards the biological and chemical factors, different processes, medicines and other processes targeting the genetic material of any multicellular organism. Gene expression analysis involving microarrays is a leading technology to study the functional domain of the genome.

Genome as a secret coder codes up the nucleotide bases and reads for protein sequences responsible for the functioning of metabolic pathways in any cell. Genetic code helps to read the secret codes and translates the same for proteins. DNA being a double-helical structure consists of the positive and negative strand that encodes for amino acids and produces coding regions for proteins. Open reading frames carry information relevant enough to represent the function of any genome. Initiation codon and stops codons play important roles as they work on the six translational frames leading to protein synthesis. Genome reads the DNA with the codes of A, T, G, C carrying all the information from ancestors to offspring.

The study of the genome was a major challenge but right now the combination of experimental methods and computer analysis had made things easy. Computational methods with the use of various analysis tools for study and comparison of genome sequences coupled with information retrieved from biological databases had been a major success for the study of the genome.

Dr. Roma Chandra
Deptt. Of Biotechnology
IILM CET Gr.Noida

miRNAs – players in Cancer

Cancer is a multiple step process which causes genetic changes in normal cells by a chain of states that represents initial malignancy progressing towards invasive cancer that converts to metastasis affecting the whole body. Cancer results represent specific phenotypes representing cell growth in a controlled environment and representing altered characteristics. Cancer cells are produced by genes known as oncogenes that are tumor suppressors and are responsible for cancer development. These oncogenes are responsible to produce various functions that include growth and transcription factors, receptors and regulators and signal transducers. Cancer cells actively grow independently without showing any response to inhibitory growth signals. Cancer cells represents condition of programmed cell death, very well known as apoptosis as they reach a stage where they are not affected by cell replication. These cancer cells promote and regulate the process of angiogenesis. Besides the primary tumor, the cancer cells keep producing new colonies. The genes are inhibited as they are associated with cancer initiation. With progression of cancer, the genes functions in processes related to differentiation and proliferation of cells. Whenever over expression of any gene occurs it will definitely lead to tumor development. Oncogenes are produced usually on gene mutation or its alteration that causes amplification of genes causing alteration of promoters increasing the gene expression leading to modification in protein production and its overall structure. Tumor suppressing genes produces proteins that regulate various biological processes. Cancer is caused when these tumor suppresors behaves differently and their regulation is altered. Oncogenes and the tumor suppressor genes include both the regular proteins and those miRNAs that are produced under altered conditions. miRNAs thus have roles in various metabolic processes controlling functions of cells and affecting various pathways inside body. miRNAs also acts to control differentiation, growth and death of cell. miRNA can be categorised into tumor causing and tumor suppressing but it is difficult to categorize them as these miRNAs represents different expression profiles in different cells and under different conditions. miRNAs are small non coding RNAs that recognizes as well as regulates mRNA target genes. They show roles in various diseases like cancer, cardiovascular disease, schizophrenia, renal function disorders, psoriasis, primary muscular disorders, fragile-X mental retardation syndrome, diabetes, chronic hepatitis, AIDS, and obesity. Oncogenes and the tumor suppressors expand from the classical protein coding genes to include miRNA.miRNA therapy is most frequently seen in cancer just because they play roles both as suppresors and as promoters. Cancer development is caused when these miRNAs are misregulated like for example miR-21 and miR-14 are responsible for those oncogenes that are over expressed or may be just due to inactive expression lead to oncogenesis. On the other hand tumor suppressive genes like for example let-7 and miR-34 help in the protection of cancer cells although when they are inactivated they will definitely lead to cancer. These miRNAs regulate mRNAs causing gene regulation. These miRNAs and their target genes are helpful for the study of interaction and their functions. MiRNA controls pathways and act as switches for genome regulating gene products .miRNAs thus act as gene regulators. Regulated genes are both oncogenic and tumor suppressive that are considered to be suitable drug targets by various pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. miRNAs are players in cancer as they are seen to show significant roles in the disease.

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Development of a Drug

Drugs in pharmacy are actually medicines that are used for the well being of human to prevent or cure a disease. It is a product produced and regulated by pharmaceutical companies that can impart positive medical effect on patients. Study of drugs is called pharmacology that includes sub branches pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. Pharmacology is the study of action of drug where drug is manmade, natural or endogenous molecule which exerts biochemical or physiological effect on cell. Pharmacodynamics is the study about what drug does to body or we can say that it is the study of biochemical and physiological effects of drugs on body or microorganisms and mechanism of drug action. On the other hand pharmacokinetics is the study of what body does to drug or we can say it is the study of mechanism of absorption and distribution of an administered drug under ADMET properties. For a chemical compound to qualify as a drug, it must be safe, effective, stable, deliverable, available and novel. The compound should be safe enough that it won’t cause any harmful effects. It should be effective enough to treat/prevent the disease. It should be stable both chemically and metabolically. It should be deliverable so that it can be absorbed and reach the site of action. It should be easily available from natural source or under chemical synthesis. It should be novel and thus should be patentable.

Drug discovery refers to discovery of a new candidate drug. Historically drugs were discovered by finding out the active ingredient from traditional remedies and serendipity. Later small molecules, natural products and extracts were screened under classical pharmacology. Under reverse pharmacology, targets were hypothesized and large compounds were screened. Modern drug discovery involves identification and optimization of screening hits increasing affinity, selectivity, efficacy, stability, oral bio availability, etc. After properties of a candidate drug are fulfilled, process of drug development is followed that includes computer aided drug designing.

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Development of a new drug includes following steps:

1.) Identify a disease and understand its biological nature and symptoms as well as know about the cause of disease i.e. whether caused by any infectious agent, any poisonous substance or any mutant protein, etc.
2.) For developing any candidate drug an assay is developed to test effect of drug on growth of microorganism, on cells grown in tissue culture or simply on diseases animals.
3.) To identify an effective agent from a natural source that can act as the candidate drug.
4.) To identify molecular targets by either searching the structures for possible targets or by model building.
5.) To identify if any molecule can fit the target site and what is the nature of this molecule- is it a known substrate or inhibitor?
6.) To identify a lead compound which is obtained from any natural source or from any chemical compound with a desired biological activity.
7.) To develop a lead compound with possible variants with a goal to develop compound with desired properties and enhanced biological activity.
8.) Preclinical testing that includes testing both in vitro and with animals to prove effectiveness and safety. At this point the drug may be patented.
9.) Submission of investigated drug to FDA followed by clinical trials phase I,I and III.
10.) Phase I clinical trials. Test the compound on healthy volunteers with study of ADMET properties on body. The results suggest range of safe dosage.
11.) Phase II clinical trials. Test the compound on approximately 200 volunteer patients for the efficacy of drug against the disease. To check whether the drug cure the disease or increase the symptoms and if required calibrate the dosage.
12.) Phase III clinical trials. Test the compound on approximately 2000 patients, to demonstrate and conclude that the compound is better than the best known treatment. These are randomized double blind tests, either against a placebo or against a currently-used drug. These trials are very expensive; it is not uncommon to kill a project before embarking on this step, if the phase II trials expose side effects or unsatisfactory efficacy.
13.) File a New Drug Application with the FDA with relevant data with proofs of drug safe. FDA approval allows selling the drug. Only now can the drug bring in income.
14. ) Phase IV studies, after the FDA approval and marketing , effects of the drug are continuously monitored . If new side effects may turn up in some classes of patients that restrictions are put on the use of the drug, or possibly even its recall.

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Blog by- Dr. Roma Chandra

TRANSGENIC PLANTS

Genetically modified organisms, transgenic plants or transgenics is an interesting area for researchers. Biotechnology students at IILM are working in the field of genetic engineering and show keen interest towards transgenics and transgenic plants.India’s genetically modified crop area is fifth largest in world (approx 11.4 million hectares in 2017) that indicates the high demand for GMO (Genetically modified organisms) technology among Indian farmers. Before transgenics, the alteration of crops to increase their production was done by process of selection which has been going on for thousands of years. By the year 2050, world population will probably reach nine billions. In order to fulfill the needs of this enormous population, the production of food should be increased at the same rate. Here comes the use of genetic techniques which are used to improve crops over the recent years producing transgenic plants.

Transgenics helps to produce plants with desired traits, higher yields, improved quality, improved shelf life, drought resistance, tolerance to heat & cold, and resistance to pests and diseases. We can thus say that transgenic plants production will continue to feed the growing population by producing desirable products. The first transgenic plants were reported in 1983. Since then, transgenic plants developed around the world included tobacco, corn, tomato, potato, banana, alfalfa, maize, soyabean, canola, apple, squash, banana, etc. India’s crop area is under the single crop cotton incorporating genes from Bacillus thuringiensis or Bt soil bacterium coding for resistance against heliothis bollworm insect pests. Plants are genetically engineered in laboratory by methods that alter their genetic makeup like the bolistic method – particle gun method or by Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation method. The “Gene Gun” method, also known as the “Micro-Projectile Bombardment” or “Biolistic” method is most commonly used in the species like corn and rice.

This method uses tiny gold or tungsten particles that are bound to DNA which are shot into the plant cell using gun.DNA separated from coated metal and integrates into the genome. This method is used mostly for monocot crops like wheat or maize or for which Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation method is less successful. The “Agrobacterium” method involves the use of Agrobacterium tumefaciens bacteria as it is capable of transferring large fragments of DNA efficiently. This method is used for dicot plants like potatoes, tomatoes, tobacco, etc. In research, tobacco and Arabidopsis thaliana are the most genetically modified plants, due to well developed transformation methods, easy propagation and well studied genomes and thus they serve as model plant species. Transgenic plants includes high lysine corn, plants with enhanced nitrogen fixation, herbicide tolerant plants and disease insect resistant varieties. Transgenic plants can serve as bioreactors for new proteins, vitamins, plastics, drugs, etc. and can be used as edible vaccines.

They can produce variety of proteins for use in diagnosis of various human diseases and can be used as factories to produce polyhydroxy butyrate (PHB, biodegradable plastics).Genetically engineered Arabidopsis plants produces PHB globules in their chloroplasts without affecting plant’s growth & development. Although genetically modified crops gives solution to food shortages around the world but the viability of their cultivation remains questionable. The enhanced production of GM crops to eliminate hunger carries hidden costs in environment and health concerns. The issue is still controversial making the future of genetically modified crops to remain uncertain.

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Bioethanol Production from agrowastes

Waste is any unusable or unwanted material that is rejected because it is of no use and waste management refers to the activities related with the collection and disposal of wastes. Waste management starts from collection of waste to its segregation, recycling and disposal. Wastes includes basically domestic, commercial and industrial wastes like plastics, bottles, cans, papers, scrap iron, chemicals, oils, manufacturing industries wastes, etc. Another kind of waste is agrowaste that includes rice straw, wheat straw, corn straw and baggase. The agrowastes mainly comprises of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, protein and ash. The utilization of these agrowastes is too low and varies depending on geographic regions. As reported only a small amount is utilized as animal feed while a large amount is disposed as waste and particularly burned that causes increase in air pollution affecting human health. With an increase in demand of energy sources that can replace petroleum and gas, bioethanol production came into picture. Carbohydrates like sugar and starch are good source for bioethanol production but due to limited availability they were not supposed to be the best source for bioethanol production by researchers. Hence, agricultural wastes called as lignocellulosic biomass were considered to be the potential raw materials used for bioethanol production. Globally, these agrowastes are considered to be the most favorable feedstocks for bioethanol production due to their availability throughout the year. Rice straw is the most abundant type out of all the agrowastes with a potential to produce around 205 billion liters of bioethanol per year. Bioethanol production starts with pretreatment process with delignification for liberation of cellulose and hemicelluloses. Pretreatment is done by three ways: physical, chemical and biological. Further hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicelluloses is done to produce fermentable sugars like glucose, xylose, arabinose, galactose, mannose. Sachharification is done under enzymatic hydrolysis converting cellulose to glucan and hemicelluloses to mannan, xylan, glucan, galactan and arabinan and finally fermentation of reducing sugars is done. Several species of bacteria and fungi produces enzyme cellulase that acts in enzymatic hydrolysis. Use of appropriate microorganisms or GMOs helps in fermentation process. But feedstock, hydrolysis process, fermentation process and conversion technology are the drawbacks of this process. Researchers at IILM are working towards improving efficiency of bioethanol production process from agrowaste (particularly rice straw) with the use of various optimization strategies.

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BIOWEAPONS

Biological warfare also known as germ warfare is the use of biological toxins or infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi with intent to kill or incapacitate humans, animals or plants as an act of biological weapons which is often termed as “Bioweapons”. Bioweapons are living organisms or replicating entities that reproduce or replicate in the host body. As compared to normal viruses or bacteria or fungi, these are difficult to be treated as well as these multiply at a very fast rate. Bioweapons can also be an artificially manufactured toxic substance that can be used to affect the normal biological processes of a host. They target living organisms such as humans, animals or vegetation and contaminate non living substances like air, water and soil. Bioweapons may be lethal or non-lethal targeting an individual, a group or even an entire population. They can be developed, acquired or stockpiled. They are deployed by nation states or non-national groups. Bioweapons are any disease causing bacteria, virus or natural toxin that can be used against an enemy.

BIOWEAPONS_1Anthrax is an acute disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis which live in the soil where gazing animals typically come into contact with spores while rooting around for food. Symptoms are fever, respiratory problems, fatigues, muscle aches, enlarged lymph nodes, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea. In 1945 Iran outbreak, 1 million sheep died of anthrax. Botulinum toxin is a protein and neurotoxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum which can kill in 24 to 72 hrs which makes it a harmful bioweapon. Symptoms are blurred vision, vomiting and difficulty in swallowing. In 1990 the Japanese cult Aum Shinrikyo released an aerosol of the toxin. Nipah virus is the virus naturally occurs in fruit bats with symptoms like fever, muscle pains or inflammation of the brain. The outbreak occurred in the Nipah region of Malaysia infecting 265 and killing 105. In Greek and Roman mythology, the chimera combined elements of lion, goat and serpent into one monstrous form. In modern genetic science, a chimeric organism is a life form that contains genes from a foreign species. Chimera which combines the common cold with polio may help cure brain cancer. In 1980, Soviet Union chimera project combined small pox and ebola. The delivery methods includes: food, water, aircraft sprayers, vehicle sprayer, air handling, human vector, animal vector. Some of the potential agents include bacteria, virus, or natural toxin that can be used against an enemy acting as biological weapons are any disease. Biological weapons possess a threat to the society. They are much cheaper and can cause destruction comparable to nuclear weapons may it be in developing or developed country. It’s a modern engineering aspect and most of the people are unaware of it.

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Bioinformatics: Buzz in Biology

Bioinformatics is an interesting branch and area of interest for biotechnologist and other life science researchers. It involves the integration of computers, software tools, and databases in order to study biological information. Bioinformatics is importantly used in large scale activities in genomics and proteomics as well as areas like metabolomics, transcriptomics, etc. Genomics refers to the analysis of genomes. A genome is defined as the complete set of DNA sequences that code for the hereditary material generation after generation. DNA sequences include genes and their transcripts within the genome. Proteomics, on the other hand, refers to analysis of proteins. When the information related to any system can be represented digitally, it potentially offers application of bioinformatics. Thus, bioinformatics can be applied from single cells to whole ecosystems. The beginning of bioinformatics was back in 1968 by Margaret Dayhoff with collection of protein sequences known as the Atlas of Protein Sequence and Structure. The early experiments included sequence similarity search program FASTA to determine that the contents of v-sis, a cancer-causing viral sequence, were most similar to the well-characterized cellular PDGF gene. The results were impressive and acceptable and thus the field of bioinformatics has exploded. The growth of bioinformatics is parallel to the development of DNA sequencing technology. The rapid growth of bioinformatics can be illustrated by the deposition of nucleotide sequences in GenBank database. Out of many projects, genome sequencing projects have become the flagships of many bioinformatics initiatives. Revolution related to the Internet, new algorithms and new softwares and development of computer cluster technology has helped bioinformatics to analyze large amount of data.

On the other hand, new technologies and methods such as next generation sequencing, serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE), microarrays, and new mass spectrometry have developed and equally contributed to produce data for analyses at an incredible rate. Bioinformatics is working on two platforms, at one side it is dealing with large amounts of data produced through genomics and proteomics initiatives and on the other side it is dealing with the interpretation of these data. The future of bioinformatics is integration. For example, integration of a wide variety of data sources such as clinical and genomic data will allow the study related to diseases and genetic mutations. The integration of GIS data, such as maps, weather systems, with crop health and genotype data, will allow the study related to agriculture experiments. Bioinformatics also helps in large scale comparative genomics, phylogenetic analysis, modeling and visualization of complex systems, data storage, database creation, data analysis and validation. System biology is another branch that many scientists had referred to the next wave in bioinformatics with an approach to solve novel complex biological problems as it integrates genomics, proteomics, and bioinformatics information. Bioinformatics includes microarray analysis, gene expression studies and drug designing along with computational comparison of complex biological observations, such as gene expression patterns and protein networks. Bioinformatics is about converting biological observations to algorithms, any software or a model that a computer will understand. This is a very challenging task since biology can be very complex. Such problems related to phenotypic traits offer exciting challenges for future bioinformaticians.

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Fostering landmark transitions in reproductive biology

There has been a paradigm shift in Arena of Birth control strategies. India is witnessing changes from focus on traditional birth control measures targeted towards females to new era of male anti-fertility measures. RISUG is a reversible contraceptive injection incorporating SMA-DMSO polymer which damages sperms when injected in vas deferens of males. At IILM CET, We tested the safety of this molecule at genetic level by various toxicology assays involving microbial strains & animal cell lines- AMES Test, Chromosomal Aberration etc. Results indicate it to be absolutely safe with no damage at genetic & chromosomal level.

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Make Career in Biotech Industry

Department of Biotechnology conducts workshop to introduce students to various opportunities in this field. The workshop introduces students to various industries in this field where they can make career in future. The academic session started with workshop in the field of IPR. The workshop was conducted on the theme of Intellectual Property Rights and the career opportunities in this field taken by Mrs. Chestha Sharma, co founder, IIPTA, Delhi. The workshop was organized in association with IIPTA – Indian Institute of Patent and Trademark Research and Education Private Limited .Everyday industries are developing new molecules and processes and products which need to be patented. IPR has become a major thrust area in these organizations. Based on present scenario and opportunities in intellectual property industry, Mrs. Chestha Sharma took this workshop.

The second workshop was on Natural Product Research, conducted by Mr. Mayank Bharadwaj, CEO & Dr. Vinod, R &D Head, Rapture Biotech Ltd. Mr. Mayank Bhardwaj, CEO of Rapture Biotech started the session with a brief idea of bioentrepreneurship and booming opportunities for biotechnology students in various segments of industries, starting from R& D labs to CRO, KPO, pharmacy till establishing their own enterprise. He focused on significance of Natural Products and their applications. After the theoretical session, Dr. Vinod, R&D Head, Rapture, demonstrated the isolation and screening strategies of secondary metabolites from herbal extracts and plant products along with assessment of antimicrobial activity of these secondary metabolites. He gave important tips on data interpretation and data representation related to extraction & analysis of primary and secondary metabolites present in natural products. The purpose of this workshop is to create awareness and provide hands-on training to students of Biological Sciences in Natural product research and Management aspects in Biotech, so that they are able to meet the challenges for competitive Biotechnology job sector. Workshop introduced students to plant secondary metabolite qualitative testing, antibacterial activity, quantitative analysis and preparation of standard graph, management aspects in biotech comprises of science management and communications, biotech entrepreneurship.

Workshop on Key aspects of Environmental Engineering was next that was conducted by Mr. Dhananjay Kumar Gupt, Royal Haskoning DHV .The workshop was conducted by our alumnus, Mr. Dhananjay Kumar Gupt (B.Tech, Biotechnology,2005-2009) who is currently working as JE at Royal Haskoning DHV (Netherland based MNC). Prior to working in Royal HaskoningDHV, He talked about waste water management and solid waste treatment. During the workshop, he emphasized on types of pollution, pollutants and their impact on tangible as well as intangible environment. He covered the significant strategies of applying Sequential Batch reactors (SBR), Integrated ISBR, C-tech SBR , membrane bioreactor, soil biotechnology, Nereda and FCR (Food chain Reactor) in sewage treatment. He highlighted the key strategies to mitigate pollutants and solid waste management. Mr. Dhananjay gave a live demonstration on the functioning of sewage treatment plant installed at campus.

Pharmacovigilance and clinical trials was another workshop conducted by team from IBRI, Noida. Dr. Suhasini Bhatnagar’s talk covered the basics of clinical trials, types of clinical trials, importance of Pharmacovigilance to monitor various types of adverse drug reactions (ADR) and Regulatory affairs in Pharmaceutical industries. She provided insights on market trends in area of clinical research along with emphasis on effective record maintenance for good quality clinical database management. Dr. Abhinav (Founder of IBRI) focused on existing job opportunities and challenges in this domain. He talked about critical pharmacovigilance processes and business continuity for effective monitoring of clinical trials. He substantiated the importance of certification courses in this area. This workshop has broadened the thinking horizons of Biotechnology students to think about the profiles of clinical research associates and clinical research coordinators with respect to placements.

DNA isolation, PCR amplification and Stem cell in Cancer Research was workshop conducted by team of Helix Biogenesis. The purpose of the workshop was to bring hand on experience on molecular techniques like PCR, agarose gel electrophoresis and genomic DNA isolation, stem cells and their application in diagnostic and therapeutic. Dr. Ravindra Kumar and Dr. Rashmi Bharadwaj talked about stem cells, use of embryonic stem cells lines and challenges faced in embryonic stem cell research. The second session was conducted in lab where students got hand on exposure on molecular techniques basically genomic DNA isolation from bacterial culture followed by analysis of extracted genomic DNA by agarose gel electrophoresis. In the other part of this session they performed DNA amplification by Polymerase Chain Reaction followed by electrophoresis to check the amplification. The workshops helped students to develop clear insight on molecular techniques.

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