IILM College of Engineering and Technology

‘Electric Bike’ Project of IILM Student won the First Prize of Rs. 1 Lakh by State Government

With the announcement of the name of Mr. Honey Saini, B. Tech student from the Automobile Engineering, IILM College of Engineering; the hall went cheering with clapping of hands for long. As an inspirational figure for many, he won the first prize of Rs 1 lac at final review of the project by UP State Council of Science and Technology and proved the phrase that “There is no substitute to hard work”. The project is named as Design and Development of an Electric Bike, which is proposed to bring clean energy vehicle into the picture for people. Initially, seed money of Rs 20 000 was provided to him by UP State Council of Science and Technology. He used this money towards partial contribution to the development of an electric bike.

Through this project, clean energy solution in the motorbike segment will be taken up for the personal mobility of people. Since fossil fuels have posed challenges to the environment while another challenge is their rapid depletion so this has raised the need and demand for clean energy sources eventually. Designing an electric bike is an important aspect to address the urgent need for clean energy solutions particularly for transportation.

Helping the society vis a via the environment, this bike will run purely on electricity from batteries and there will be no pollution caused. Additionally, the electric bike requires very less maintenance as compared to the gasoline bikes. While looking at the manufacturing cost aspect-its major cost involvement is associated with Li-ion batteries. In the prototype phase, the current production cost is more than a lakh rupees per unit which will lower down in the bulk production phase.

Mr. Honey Saini has completed the project within a span of one year. The institutional support for this project is provided by- Dept of Automobile Engineering (use of institute workshop, manpower) CET, IILM-AHL, Greater Noida and UPCST.

DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT AN ALL-ELECTRIC MOTORCYCLE

In its zest to develop products which will be boon to societal and ecological development, Mr Honey Saini, final year student of Automobile Engineering has undertaken a project of designing and developing an all-electric motorcycle. The aim of this project is to develop an absolute zero emission motorbike for daily commuting.

The motor cycle shall be having following technologies:

► Electronically Controlled motor
► Li-ion Battery
► Active Battery Management system
► Regenerative Braking
► E-ABS (Electronic Antilock Braking System)
► Active Monitoring System

The methodology to be used during design and development of motorcycle is discussed in succeeding paras.

DESIGN-AND-DEVELOPMENT-AN-ALL-ELECTRIC-MOTORCYCLE_1Frame & Body Panel. The frame and body panel will be designed using solid works. The Finite Element Analysis shall be carried out to ensure its stability and strength. The material to be used for frame will be MS and glass fibre for body panels. The frame for battery will be reinforced glass fibre.

Motor & its Controllers.  The motor & its controllers will be customised for designed traction for motor cycle.

DESIGN-AND-DEVELOPMENT-AN-ALL-ELECTRIC-MOTORCYCLE_2Shock Absorbers.  The front & rear shock absorbers will again be customised as per the design.

DESIGN-AND-DEVELOPMENT-AN-ALL-ELECTRIC-MOTORCYCLE_3
Battery.
  The battery is the most critical part of design. The battery technology is constantly evolving. The design shall have lithium-ion battery due to its inherent advantages of higher specific energy and power. The battery will be customised for its range and power.

DESIGN-AND-DEVELOPMENT-AN-ALL-ELECTRIC-MOTORCYCLE_4

#IILMCET #Automobile Engineering #Mechanical Engineering # Best in region IILM

Visit us at http://iilmcet.ac.in/

Our experiment with Automatic Tyre Inflation System

Automatic (self) Tyre Inflation System is designed by Mechanical students to maintain a recommended level of pressure inside the tires by sensing even a small reduction in pressure. For sensing a reduction in pressure level a pressure transducer is installed that measure pressure inside the tires and send a feedback signal to control circuit. Purpose of designing this system is to optimize the vehicle performance as well as the safety. A 12 Volt DC electrical portable air compressor is used to provide air for maintaining pressure. A 12-volt automotive rechargeable battery supply electrical power to the compressor.

Generally, public vehicles are equipped with pressure measuring transducers that monitor pressure inside the tires, but there’s no way for the vehicle driver to maintain proper pressure level without an external air source. So this system may be installed on common passenger vehicles. It is cheap and required very less maintenance.

Component of System

  1. 12 Volt portable Air compressor
  2. 12 Volt Battery
  3. Pressure transducers
  4. Electronic control circuit
  5. Rotary Joint
  6. Pedestal Bearing
  7. Chain Drive
  8. Solenoid Valve

Applications

  1. It may be installed in common passenger vehicles like bikes, cars, buses.
  2. It may be used in emergency vehicles like ambulance, police vehicles and fire vehicle.
  3. It may be used in transports vehicles like trucks.
  4. It may be used in sports utility vehicles as there is regular need of checking of air pressure.
  5. It may be installed in military vehicles.

 Team Members

  1. Ambuj Anand (ME 2016-20)
  2. Khushnandan Kumar (ME 2016-20)
  3. Sandeep Kumar (ME 2016-20)
  4. Vikash Kumar (ME 2016-20)

Mentor: Mr. Sandeep Kumar Gupta, Assistant Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department, IILM CET, Greater Noida

Vedic Mathematics for Engineers

Vedic Mathematics is the ancient system of mathematics which was rediscovered by Sri Bharati Krishna Tirthaji Maharaj from the Vedas during 1911 to 1918. The entire Vedic mathematics is based on sixteen sutras also called word formulae and attests to a unified structure of mathematics. In the present era of digitization, engineering community is working towards the increment in the speed of the digital circuits as well as reducing the size and power consumed. As arithmetic operations are the fundamental units of any digital circuit and thus optimization of these units will increase the efficiency of the entire digital system. The computational steps required to achieve the desired result may also be reduced by applying Vedic sutras. Based on Vedic math sutras, several computer architectures have been implemented by the designers. The mathematical algorithms are also being optimized and simplified by applying Vedic sutras.

Digital signal processing, the most growing technology this century is the technology that is ubiquitous in almost every engineering field and thus it puts enormous challenges to the engineering fraternity. Digital signal processing, image processing, and other heavy computational applications need quicker processor computation. Quick additions and multiplications are of great importance in the area of digital signal processing for convolution, discrete Fourier transformation, digital filters, etc. The process of core computing is invariably a multiplication routine and therefore the engineers are always seeking for new algorithms and hardware to implement them. As such, these signal processing applications need higher throughput arithmetic operations. Also, heavy calculations are required in some arithmetic operations like multiplication and division. To perform these operations, more processing time is required in traditional methods like array, booth, carry save etc.

In comparison to traditional multiplication, fewer steps are required to solve multiplication by using Vedic sutras. This provides a great help to achieve optimization at all levels of digital designs and power consumption is also reduced. Vedic multipliers are more efficient in terms of area, power, and speed. There is also the noteworthy use of multiplication process based on Vedic algorithms and implementations of the same in 8085 and 8086 microprocessors which result in appreciable savings of processing time. The exploration of Vedic algorithms in the field of signal processing may prove to be exceedingly advantageous. Now a day, engineering fraternity is looking to incorporate research-based studies in Vedic mathematics for its applications in several future engineering processes. Further research prospects may include the design and development of a Vedic digital signal processing chip using VLSI technology.

 

Blog by: Dr. Satya Sagar Saxena, Associate Professor, Computer Science Engineering Dept., IILM CET, Greater Noida

Being Ethical – Not an Option but A Compulsion

Ethics as a subject is taught at almost all levels of education that one goes through—be at home, school, college or postgraduate curriculum. Though ethical considerations in case studies are used as an educational tool in Management Curriculum, yet we find that in the race for business profits in the highly competitive business environment, ethics seems to have lost their relevance.  Most businessmen, young or old alike, just make a passing reference to ethical considerations rather than opting for a proactive and positive approach. The philosophy that rules today – No matter how you reach your goals but focus only on the achievement of goals. Anything and anyhow almost majority of people do not care for the means used if objectives are achieved. In short, the end justifies the means.

There has never been a more appropriate time than now to focus on human values and ethics when we are faced with depletion of natural resources, unequal development, inequitable distribution of wealth and other issues resulting in widening the gap between haves and have-nots. But all is not lost. The technological developments including the proliferation of mobile connections, social media, and digital marketing have added to the knowledge of common man. Companies cannot get away without paying attention to and a meeting customer’s expectation. Companies with ethical values, like Tatas, are being preferred over unethical ones. Potential investors and current shareholders are forcing organizations to be ethical not only to them but also to their employees and customers with due consideration to the environment too. The positive public image is an outcome of ethical considerations on which the organization rests.

In the Indian context, equally important is the role of government in creating an atmosphere where the wealthy and powerful too are subjected to all checks and balances as applicable to all without any discrimination based on their status. This too will make a significant impact in emphasizing ethical considerations in our daily lives. Recently, over 2100 companies have cleared their outstanding amounts, a majority of which came after Government amended the IBC. The business culture of cheating/impropriety is beginning to change through a deft move by the government, an excellent example of government bringing a sense of propriety in public dealings by the wealthy and powerful businessmen.

Some of the other recent pronouncements and instances that exemplify ethical considerations that all professionals, (lawyers/ doctors/ engineers), business leaders and individuals will have to abide by, are precursors of serious changes that will ensue.

  • Recent directive by Supreme Court of India asking Central Government to enact a law to regulate legal profession because of growing commercialization of the legal profession at the cost of their professional ethics.
  • Environment pollution has been in headlines in Delhi-NCR time and again, but the recent cricket test match gave it international twist when some players were seen wearing face masks while playing.
  • Healthcare is the other issue hogging the limelight exposing its commercialization with utter disregard of ethical practices by health professionals.
  • Real Estate is another business activity full of unethical practices by builders, big or small, that has again forced the entry of court of law and government to bring rules and guidelines to regulate it.
  • Corporate social responsibility has assumed importance as it has been made mandatory by the Indian government.

CSR

It is high time, when we as part of an organization or as an individual /professional took note of our social obligations despite competitive pressures and unrealistic goals lest somebody else curtail our “freedom” and makes rules for us to follow. Let us do it on our own rather than others making us do what we are supposed to – be ethical in both our personal and professional dealings.  We are all customers as well as sellers, one time or other, every day and we, therefore, cannot escape the responsibility of being ethical in these dual roles.

#Ethics # Good Governance # IILMCET #MBA Programs #IntegratedMBAatIILM

Visit us @ http://iilmcet.ac.in/

Blog by: Prof. Ganesh Khanna, Associate Professor-Marketing, HOD – MBA Department, IILM CET, Greater Noida

Earn More, Save More and Spend More

What every individual needs to learn about money management

Earn More, Save More and Spend More” is a simple three step process to be followed in order. The order is very important here. First earn, then save and then spend whatever is left. And if you really want to spend more then you need to earn more. The savings, then, must be translated into meaningful investments. Investments are the route to a richer life. All one need to do is to keep some basic things in mind:

1. Set Your Goals:  Goals are the statements about where you want to end up. They are what you want to achieve. The Goals should be SMART- Specific, Measureable, Achievable, Realistic and Time Bound.

2. Understand Your Risk Tolerance: Risk tolerance is a psychological trait that is genetically based, but positively influenced by education, income, and wealth (as these increase, risk tolerance appears to increase slightly) and negatively by age (as one gets older, risk tolerance decreases). Your risk tolerance is how you feel about risk and the degree of anxiety you feel when risk is present.

3. Handle Basics First: Financial news and information can be intimidating. You can choose not to be scared if you look out for right resources such as financial blogs or online portals that explain jargons and concepts in a simple way. One should read up one jargon or financial term a day.

4. Choose the right way to Invest: Invest through an intermediary like a bank or a financial advisor. The thumb rule here is to understand the interest of the company or person giving advice, whether, is it in your interest or its own best interest. An intermediary can do the necessary paperwork as well as advice on where to invest.

5. Choosing the right investment: Based on the set goals, there are three cardinal rules of choosing an investment avenue- (1) Returns, (2) the time period of investing and (3) Tax Efficiency. Whatever your financial goal – higher education expenses or simply creating wealth for yourself in long-term- you don’t need complex investment products. Investing to create wealth means you invest regularly in an avenue that grows your money over a period of time. Investing to meet a short-term goal means you invest in an avenue that offers safety of your principal.

 

Blog by: Dr. Shikha Mittal Shrivastav, Assistant Professor, Dept. Of Management, IILM CET, Greater Noida

Unlocking the value of hitherto unvoiced ‘Weeds’, Generating mass awareness – Addressing pollution concerns

On the occasion of World Environment Day – June 5th

“A Weed is a Weed, because we are told, it’s a weed;
but it is also a plant, a flower, a thing of beauty” – ekp

Weeds cropping up unceremoniously every now and then around us, incumbent various beneficial properties including medicinal, serve as Pollutant – Bio-Indicator’, ‘Bio-Accumulator’ and Phyto-Remediator. Hitherto unheard of by most of us, weeds support the environment selflessly by absorbing and thereby lowering the levels of various pollutants.
Various such local weeds have been located purposely by IILM’s Research and Innovation wing with proactive student involvement. These weeds have got identified by appreciable support from plant biodiversity conservation expert – Dr. Ansari (Scientist-E Botanical Survey of India) BGIR, Greater Noida.
Various medicinal and environmentally beneficial properties of these weeds are thoroughly looked upon, for generating needful awareness and adoption in real life. The list tabulated below imparts some of such important features of weeds:

S.N. Weed Medicinal value Environmental impact Other utilizations
1 Cenchrus ciliaris
Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) is a valuable tropical grass
Leprosy, Scabies (infestation by the itch mite Sarcoptes scabiei), Skin diseases
Fever, Dysentery (intestinal infection that causes severe diarrhea with blood)
Bioaccumulator of Cd > Ni > Cu > Zn > Fe > Cr as per the given order. The most drought tolerant of the commonly sown grasses.
2 Oxalis corniculata
The creeping wood sorrel, also called procumbent yellow sorrel or sleeping beauty. Oxalis – acid or sour referring to the sharp taste of the plant. corniculata – small horn
Anthelmintic (treat infections with parasitic worms), Antiphlogistic (reduces inflammation or fever), Astringent (reduces bleeding from minor abrasions or as a cosmetic), Depurative (purifying and detoxifying), Diuretic (promotes urine production). Act as bio-indicators lowest Air pollution tolerance index values (APTI 6.42)
3 Amaranthus viridis
जंगली चौलाई, when grown on nitrogen-rich soils-concentrate nitrates in the leaves.
Blood purifier. Febrifugal (mitigating or removing fever). Lead hyperaccumulator (Pb) with high heavy metal translocation index.
Oil Spill Phytoremediation (removal, degradation, or containment of contaminants using plants).
4 Nicotiana plumbaginifolia
Tex-Mex tobacco – rich in polymethoxyflavones that possess significant analgesic and anxiolytic activities.
Anti-spasmodic (used as relaxant)
Discutient (disperses a tumor or lesion).
Used as an eyewash.
Ozone, SO2 and UV-B stress leads to Catalase mRNA modulation serving as a pollution bioindicator Ash rich in soda – used to make soap
5 Melilotus indicus
Annual yellow sweetclover is harvested from the wild as a local source of food medicines
Cancer-fighting agent.
Reduces inflammations due to arthritis.
Helps to relax the nervous system.
Selenium accumulator. Root growth and Pollen as a bioindicator of the effects of soil and atmospheric pollution.
Used as a phytoremediation for treatment of soils contaminated with dioxins.
Used as an insect repellent.
6 Solanum  nigrum
Kakamachi  – black nightshade – Wonder Berry
Anti-tumorigenic, antioxidant,
Anti-cancer
Contraceptive for men
Cadmium (Cd) Hyper accumulator.
Remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils.
Used for phytostabilization of lead (Pb) and copper (Cu) contaminated soils.
7 Launaea nudicaulis
Used traditionally for various diseases having phytotoxic ability.
Relieve itches, ulcers, cuts, swellings and rheumatism.
Possesses cytotoxic and antifungal activities
Insecticidal.
Corrosion Inhibitor
8 Polygonum plebeium
The common knotweed, is harvested from the wild for local use as a food and medicine.
Pneumonia,
Bowel complaints.
Curing skin diseases (Eczema)
Bioaccumulation of metals
Indicative of reduced monsoonal precipitation
Eaten as a vegetable. since found to contain appreciable amount of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, V and Co.
9 Vernonia cinerea
Perennial plants from the sunflower family with a host of medicinal benefits.
Anti-inflammatory,
Diuretic (dysuria, spasm of bladder), Hepatoprotective, Nephroprotective. diaphoretic (combined with quinine, is used against malaria).
Anti- leucorrhoea.
Helpful in phytoremediation.
Most suitable metal tolerant plant species
10 Coronopus didymus
The lesser swine-cress, is a species in the cabbage and mustard family Brassicaceae
Antiscorbutic, Antiasthmatic Antidepressant, Antihemorrhoids Bronchitis Cholesterol, radioprotective ability Capability to tolerate and accumulate cadmium (Cd) for phytoremediation.
11 Calotropis procera
आक Rubber Bush, a milkweed tree.
Used for digestive disorders,
Against parasitic infections including elephantiasis and worms.
A biosorption of heavy metal ions. Used as bioindicator and phytoremediator. Host plant, nectar flower for monarchs & caterpillars.
12 Chloris barbata
Windmill grass or finger grass effective for various diseases
Treats rheumatism
Used externally for skin disorders. Diabetes,
Diarrhea and Fever
Used in phytoremediation for petroleum and heavy metal contaminated sites.
13 Erigeron bonariensis
Asthmaweed Erigeron bonariensis (L.) is locally called “gulava” or “mrich booti”
Traditionally used in urine problems. Radiactive waste remediation (Uranium)
Phytocatalysis.
Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles
14 Malva coromandelica
Clustermallow, Cheeseweed, curly-leaved mallow.
Used in a tea to soothe bronchitis, emphysema, sore throat, and cough. skin care products
Treatment of gallstones, kidney stones, kidney inflammation, headaches, and toothaches
15 Datura metel
Commonly known as devil’s trumpet, thorn apple and metel
Relieve arthritis such as rheumatism & gout. Treats asthma and bronchitis.
Antiasthmatic, antispasmodic, hypnotic and narcotic
Absorbs heavy metals leading to bioremediation through higher
phytoremediation potential for Copper, Lead, Nikel, Cadmium, and Chromium.
Repellent against larva and mosquito
16 Sonchus asper
Prickly Sow-Thistle is a creeping rooted annual
Effective antimicrobials in skin ailments particularly boil and wounds. Cadmium and lead hyperaccumulator Preparation of nanoparticles drugs
17 Veronica anagallis-aquatica
Common names water speedwell, blue water-speedwell
Appetizer and diuretic.
Used in the treatment of scurvy, impurity of the blood.
Applied externally as a poultice on burns, ulcers, whitlows
Phytoremediation of cadmium polluted water.
Biomonitor for PAH Contamination
18 Emilia sonchifolia
Lilac tassel flower or cupid’s shaving brush
Treatment of dysentery.
Eye inflammations, night blindness, cuts and wounds and sore ears. Astringent, depurative, diuretic, expectorant.
Heavy metal Cadmium and Lead hyperaccumulator
19 Phyla nodiflora
The frog fruit, sawtooth fogfruit, or turkey tangle
Anodyne, Antibacterial, Astringent, Carminative, Deobstruent, Diuretic, Emmenagogue, Emollient, Febrifuge, Parasiticide and Refrigerant. smooth muscle relaxant and cardiac-modulator Used to control water and wind erosion. Important nectar plant for honeybees

Regulated utilization of the locally available weeds, which have been ignorantly overlooked till now, provides us with a large scale cost effective environmental remediation tool, for addressing the steadily growing multipronged urban pollution (air, soil and water) issues.

 

Blog by: Dr. Sudhir Sahdev, Ph.D. Prof. & Head – Research and Innovation, IILM CET, Greater Noida.

Prof. Sahdev is an ardent follower & promoter of environmental sustainability practices in letter & spirit! He, along with requisite support from the faculty and administration, is implementing ILLM Engineering’s Vision’2020 for developing it as an ‘Ecologically Balanced – Green Campus’.

Laboratory-enabled Robotics Learning

Robotics and Artificial Intelligence have transformed the functionality of modern times industries and the outlook for the world in numerous ways. The thing which was rather hard to presume centuries back has taken a practical shape now. Scientists and Technocrats have already reached at the consensus that the coming age will be majorly guided and influenced by the Robots, Robotic Technology and Artificial Intelligence.

Each coming day we hear or read about robots who have replaced human at a number of places. Going in line with this, learning the upcoming technology make a lot of sense career-wise. Apart from the conceptual based learning, laboratories do play an undeniably significant role in learning.

Advance Robotics laboratory is used for the robotics training to ECE Course students for the participation in the robotics events worldwide. The Objective of this lab is to spread the robotics among the students and to create a competitive industry required robotics skill sets in them. This is the platform where Electronics and Communication Engineering students can learn robotics and do a wide range of experiments as research.

The Advanced Robotics Labmeant for B.Tech ECE has developed a prototype designed for the purpose of Surveillance and Lifting. Surveillance is a common factor whether is it home surveillance or military surveillance, for example, a building under a hostage situation. Hence the main feature of our robot is an onboard video camera. It has an arm for lifting objects like the bottle, tetra blocks etc. Through this, we can develop a visual pattern recognition system which is used in machine vision applications for object identification and hand-eye coordination. It can be used to provide services as a platform as a service in cloud computing.

Electronics and Communication Engineering Department has advanced robotics laboratory with following features:

  • Robotics modules for the development of robots, purchased from the USA
  • Lab-View Software from National Instruments (NI), USA
  • MyRIO1900 latest microcontroller from NI, USA
  • Latest configuration PC for the software development of robots

General Robotics Development Hardware, Instrumentation and Prototyping Equipment:

• MYRIO Controller:
• DC Motor Controller
• Servo Motor Controller
• Battery
• USB Camera

MYRIO is an educational FPGA with advanced application support specifically for ECE engineering modeling with the major advantage of simulating real-time systems. It is stacked up with latest Zynq System on chip technology from Xilinx, with a powerful dual-core ARM® Cortex™-A9 processor and an FPGA that has 28,000 programmable logic cells, 10 analog inputs, 6 analog outputs, 40 lines of digital input/output (DIO), and audio I/O channels. The MyRIO kit is a perfect fit for students doing academic projects. It comes with an onboard WiFi module, 3 axis accelerometer, and four programmable LEDs (Light Emitting Diode) in an enclosed box for circuit protection. MyRIO is customizable with the NI LabVIEW FPGA Module. The NI myRIO-1900 provides analog input (AI), analog output (AO), digital input and output(DIO), audio, and power output in a compact embedded device. DC Motor Controller is used to control the revolutions of dc motor and transfer the power supply to another controller. It operates on 12v. It has two encoder ports and two dc motor ports.

Functioning Robot

(Functioning Robot)

Tetrix Servo Motor Controller has six channels to control the six servos on the allotment of channels. It has three color codes i.e yellow, red and black according to these color codes servo is connected to this controller. It has a LAN cable to connect the nodule to the other module. This bot is powered by 12V NiMH (Nickel Metal Hydride) Battery, current rating is 3,000mAh(Milli Ampere Hour). It has 10 cell which stores charge for a long time and make it more stable for operations. For Safety, it has 20amp replaceable fuse. In this Logitech C170 USB, Camera is used for surveillance. By this camera edge detection, color detection and image processing tasks are complete. It is fitted on the top of the controller.

Major Benefits of Prototype-

Compatible to connect other devices: It is compatible to connect other devices such as Android phones, laptop, and tablet by developing Lab VIEW app.
Easy to access: Through NI Cloud Portal user can access his device from any location.
Load with ammunitions: Today in defense, most of the countries use ammunitions such as machine gun, grenade launcher on their bots for quick response in critical situations.
Weather Stability: It can work in any types of weather situations i.e. rain, hot summer, winter etc.
Easy to Handle: It is easy to handle, only simple commands to control by remote or laptop.

(Student team working on Robot)

(IILM Robot participated in World Robot Olympaid India – 2017)

 

Blog by: Ms. Garima Kulshreshtha, Asst. Professor ECE, IILM CET, Greater Noida

Private Blog Networks – Reward or Risk

In the era of fast moving technology-driven world, Private Blog Networks (PBNs) comes out as an interesting and meaningful blogging specialist. Every domain holder wishes to appear at the apex of the organic search results at Google. For that matter, simply a huge number of backlinks are needed. The intent is to expand the reach of your website and fetch more and more audience to it.

PBNs are generally created with that of expired domains that had a number of backlinks. Expired domains which once upon a time were taken by its holder are left by them to get expired for whatever reason. Such no longer registered domains can be bought easily for the normal registration fee by anyone and Private Blog is created.

Its primary benefit is backlinks:

Private Blog Network is a shortcut method to get a large volume of already built high-quality backlinks on the expired website without going through the tedious tasks done for link building and therefore leveraging the link equity to your money site.

Secondary – age matters: 

Certainly, there is some value associated with the age of a domain. Old domains are considered more authoritative over any new and fresh domain. This is done to improve your website ranking in google search engines.

From Google – it’s a NO:

In fact, Google never approves such moves, still, people keep searching for Private Blog Network because links are important factors in getting ranked easily. However, it is certainly penalized by Google, if the latter attempted to target any Private Blog Network.

How to get a Private Blog Network performing well without getting penalized by Google:

  1. Keep the content qualitative, real and as natural as it can be.
  2. The frequency of appearance of articles must be good and on a repetitive basis with adequate length, high relevance and rich in media.
  3. The number of the backlink and their location are always asked for your money site. It must not be too high (ideally less than 10) and remain as per requirement with necessary relevance.
  4. With respect to anchor text, it is safer to avoid it. However, it should be always less than 5% to avoid the off page over any optimization penalty.
  5. Destination to the backlinks is needed to be carefully handled. It should be Optimizely kept half at homepage whereas rest half at subpages.

However, finding one quality old expired is a very time consuming and cumbersome journey. Although it is free to find still it is long and a fairly complicated process to dive-in to get one. Along with the continuous fear of being penalized remains there.

Moreover, Private Blog Networks works to get you reduce investments as well as efforts to outreach in mass and gets you quality website rank.

Blog by: Ms. Minakshi Sehrawat, Assistant Professor, Dept. Of Management, IILM CET, Greater Noida

Motor Technology – The ‘Center’ of an Electric Vehicle Efficiency

In the energy starving world, demand of energy is continuously raising, of-course not parallel to its supply. This issue become more significant when traditional sources of energy are continuously depleting and people are rushing to resort the renewable energy sources. Electricity is one of the chief renewable energy sources. In the meanwhile, rising prices of the fuel has occurred as an opportunistic symbol for the electric vehicles to come into the picture.

World is witnessing the regular increase in the demand for electric vehicle since last few decades. So, the demand for new ideas and innovation is also intensifying in this field. Motors are the fundamentals to any vehicle. The basic functioning of the vehicle is largely governed by the power and efficiency of the motor and its supporting technology inside.

In an electric vehicle,usually direct current (DC) electricity is fed from a battery bank to AC/DC inverter. This inverter converts DC into alternating current(AC) electricity and then it is fed to 3 phase AC induction motor. For small range and slow speed application of electric vehicle, even brushless DC motor is also used. The electrical energy is converted into mechanical energy through motor and fed to wheels through transmission and differential. Normally, it is said that inverter is the brain and motor is heart of the electric vehicle.

In order to understand the potential of the electric motor, the following range of motors can be taken as example:

  • 15 Kw Traction Motor: It provides almost unlimited maximum speed.
  • 8 Kw Traction Motor: It is designed for small e-vehicles with speed limit of 45 Km/h. It can be used without a fan in normal operation and can be suitable for tight spaces.
  • 4 Kw Traction Motor: It is the ideal motor for light weight e-vehicles for recreational uses, for off-road vehicles- for example, golf cars or ATVs (All Terrain Vehicles) and alternatively for transport vehicles that have limited space.
  • 1.5 Kw Traction Motor: Typical uses for this electric motor are for scooter and go-carts.

The rotor in an induction motor is specially designed with internal magnet that creates almost sine distribution of the magnetic flux. Because no external magnetization is required, there are no losses in the rotor through magnetization currents. The efficiency of electric motor is judged through its function of torque and speed. However, the heating of the motors at high speed is an area which require further innovation and development.

The manufacturers have started using permanent magnet electric motor instead of the AC induction motor. The advantage is that unlike AC induction motor which uses electricity to generate the magnetic currents inside the motor, which causes rotor to spin, permanent magnet motors does not require that additional current since its magnets which are created from rare-earth materials are always on. But these motors are suitable only for smaller and lighter cars. The high performance cars require greater power which can only be produced by induction motors.

Efforts are also on to reduce the cost of electric motors by using different materials that can reduce the losses with improved performance. Another, effort manufacturers have put in to reduce the size of motor is by using square copper wires instead of round ones in its stator. The stator is a stationary part of an electric motor, which generates the alternating magnetic field to spin the rotor. This is because square wires nest more compactly and densely.

The motor designers have also used three smaller magnets in place of two larger ones for the motor which helps to improve torque. Some innovators have even used non-rare- earth materials like Daido Steel to make magnets to reduce their cost. One more example is Neodymium magnet that contains no rare-earth-material but it is still powerful enough for vehicle use. The aim is to develop motors with high RPM of 30,000. At present it ranges from 12,000 to 18,000 RPM.

There is no exaggeration in making a statement that a lot is required to be done in development of motors with higher efficiency and torque in case we wish to replace gasoline driven vehicles with all electric vehicles.

Blog by: Col Mahesh Bhardwaj (Retd), Associate Professor & HOD Automobile Engg., IILM CET, Greater Noida